North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission

North Carolina Species

Mammals

A class of warm-blooded animals with fur or hair on their bodies. Mammals are vertebrates. The young are born live and feed on milk from their mothers. There are 121 species of mammals in North Carolina, 21 of which are protected. More information on some of our state's mammals is provided below.

ImageSpeciesSorted By Species In Ascending OrderState
Classi-
fication
Additional
Information
Image

Armadillo, Nine-banded

Dasypus novemcinctus

 

NonGame

Information Coming Soon

Image

Bat

Chiroptera

NonGame

More Information 

 

Image

Bear, Black

Ursus americanus

Big Game

More Information 

Image

Beaver

Castor canadensis

Furbearer

More Information 

 

Image

Bobcat

Lynx rufus

Game & Furbearer

More Information 

Image

Cougar, Eastern

Felis concolor

Extinct

Profile 

Image

Coyote

Canis latrans

NonGame

More Information 

Image

Deer, White-tailed

Odocoileus virginianus

Big Game

More Information 

Image

Elk

Cervus canadensis

NonGame

Evaluation of the Feasibility of Establishing a Huntable Elk Population in North Carolina (PDF)

Image

Feral Swine

Sus scrofa

NonGame

More Information

Image

Fox, Gray

Urocyon cinereoargenteus

Game

More Information 

Image

Fox, Red

Vulpes vulpes

Game

More Information 

Image

Groundhog

Marmota monax

NonGame

More Information

 

Image

Mink

Neovison vison

Furbearer

More Information

 

Image

Muskrat

Ondatra zibethicus

Furbearer

More Information

 

Image

Nutria

Myocastor coypus

Furbearer

More Information 

Image

Opossum, Virginia

Didelphis virginiana

Game & Furbearer

More information

Image

Otter, River

Lontra canadensis

Furbearer

More Information

 

Image

Rabbit, Appalachian Cottontail 

Sylvilagus obscurus

Game

More Information 

Image

Rabbit, Eastern Cottontail
Sylvilagus floridanus

 

Game

More Information 

Image

Rabbit, Marsh

Sylvilagus palustris

Game

More Information 

Image

Raccoon

Procyon lotor

Game & Furbearer

More Information 

Image

Skunk, Spotted 

Spilogale putorius 

Furbearer

More Information

Image

Skunk, Striped

Mephitis mephitis  

Furbearer

More Information 

 

Image

Squirrel, Carolina Northern Flying

Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus

Endangered

More Information

Image

Squirrel, Fox

Sciurus niger

Game

More Information 

Image

Squirrel, Gray

Sciurus carolinensis

Game

More Information 

Image

Squirrel, Southern Flying

Glaucomys volans

NonGame

More Information

 

Image

Weasel, Long-tailed

Mustela frenata

Furbearer

Range Map (PDF)

Image

Wolf, Red

Canis rufus

Endangered

More Information 

Fish

A class of vertebrate animals that breathe with gills and swim with fins. Fish can survive only in the water. Many fish are covered in scales.
ImageSpeciesSorted By Species In Ascending OrderClassi-
fication
Additional
Information
Image

American Shad
Alosa sapidissima

Game Fish

American Shad Information 

Image

Atlantic Sturgeon
Acipenser oxyrinchus

Nongame Fish

Profile (PDF)

Image

Black Crappie
Pomoxis nigromaculatus

Game Fish

Black Crappie Information 

Image

Blue Catfish
Ictalurus furcatus

Nongame Fish

Blue Catfish Information

Image

Bluegill
Lepomis macrochirus

Game Fish

Bluegill Information 

Image

Bodie Bass (hybrid striped bass)
Morone saxatilis x Morone chrysops

Game Fish

Bodie Bass Information

Image

Bowfin
Amia calva

Nongame Fish

Bowfin Information

Image

Brook Trout
Salvelinus fontinalis

Game Fish

Brook Trout Information 

Image

Brown Trout
Salmo trutta

Game Fish

Brown Trout Information

Image

Bullhead Catfish
Ameiurus species

Nongame Fish

Bullhead Catfish Information

Image

Cape Fear Shiner
Notropis mekistocholas

Endangered

Cape Fear Shiner Information

Image

Carolina Madtom
Noturus furiosus

Nongame Fish

Carolina Madtom Information

Image

Carolina Redhorse
Moxostoma sp. ‘Carolina’

Threatened

Carolina Redhorse Information

Image

Chain Pickerel
Esox niger

Game Fish

Chain Pickerel Information

Image

Channel Catfish
Ictalurus punctatus

Nongame Fish

Channel Catfish Information

Image

Common Carp
Cyprinus carpio

Nongame Fish

Common Carp Information

Image

Flathead Catfish
Pylodictis olivaris

Nongame Fish

Flathead Catfish Information

Image

Golden Topminnow
Fundulus chrysotus

Nongame Fish

Golden Topminnow Information

Image

Green Sunfish
Lepomis cyanellus

Game Fish

Green Sunfish Information

Image

Hickory Shad
Alosa mediocris

Game Fish

Hickory Shad Information

Image

Largemouth Bass
Micropterus salmoides

Game Fish

Largemouth Bass Information 

Image

Muskellunge
Esox masquinongy

Game Fish

Muskellunge Information

Image

Pirate Perch
Aphredoderus sayanus

Nongame Fish

Pirate Perch Information

Image

Pumpkinseed
Lepomis gibbosus

Game Fish

Pumpkinseed Information

Image

Rainbow Trout
Oncorhyncus mykiss

Game Fish

Rainbow Trout Information

Image

Redbreast Sunfish
Lepomis auritus

Game Fish

Redbreast Sunfish Information

Image

Redear Sunfish
Lepomis microlophus

Game Fish

Redear Sunfish Information

Image

Roanoke Bass
Ambloplites cavifrons

Game Fish

Roanoke Bass Information

Image

Roanoke Hogsucker
Hypentelium roanokense

Nongame Fish

Roanoke Hogsucker Information 

Image

Roanoke Logperch
Percina rex

Endangered

Roanoke Logperch Information

Image

Robust Redhorse
Moxostoma robustum

Endangered

Robust Redhorse Information 

Fact sheet (low resolution)

Fact sheet (high resolution) 

Image

Rock Bass
Ambloplites rupestris

Game Fish

Rock Bass Information

Image

Sea Lamprey
Petromyzon marinus

Nongame Fish

Sea Lamprey Information

Image

Sicklefin Redhorse
Moxostoma sp.  

Threatened

Sicklefin Redhorse Information

Image

Smallmouth Bass
Micropterus dolomieu

Game Fish

Smallmouth Bass Information

Image

Spotfin Chub
Erimonax monachus

Threatened

Spotfin Chub Information

Image

Spotted Bass
Micropterus punctulatus

Game Fish

Spotted Bass Information

Image

Striped Bass
Morone saxatilis

Game Fish

Striped Bass Information 

Image

Tangerine Darter
Percina aurantiaca

Nongame Fish

Tangerine Darter Information 

 

Waccamaw Silverside
Menidia extensa

Threatened

Waccamaw Silverside Information

Image

Walleye
Sander vitreus

Game Fish

Walleye Information 

Image

Warmouth
Lepomis gulosus

Game Fish

Warmouth Information

Image

White Bass
Morone chrysops

Game Fish

White Bass Information

Image

White Catfish
Ameiurus catus

Nongame Fish

White Catfish Information

Image

White Crappie
Pomoxis annularis

Game Fish

White Crappie Information 

Image

White Perch
Morone americana

Game Fish

White Perch Information

Image

Yellow Perch
Perca flavescens

Game Fish

Yellow Perch Information

Birds

A class of warm-blooded, egg-laying vertebrates. Birds are covered in feathers, have wings and a beak. Many birds are able to fly. Bookmark this page. It is updated frequently with new species added.

Reptiles

Reptiles are cold-blooded animals that include snakes, lizards, alligators and turtles. North Carolina is home to 37 snake species; 12 lizard species; 1 alligator species; and 21 turtle species. Click on the links for additional photos and information.

Amphibians

A class of animals including frogs, salamanders and caecilians. Amphibians are cold-blooded vertebrates that undergo metamorphosis and require moist areas and/or aquatic environments at some stage of development. North Carolina is home to 31 frog species and 63 salamander species. Check this page frequently as we add more species information.
ImageSpeciesSorted By Species In Ascending Order
Image

Bufonidae Family

Fowler's Toad
(Bufo (Anaxyrus) fowleri)

Image

Bufonidae Family

American Toad
Bufo (Anaxyrus) americanus

Image

Bufonidae Family

Oak Toad
(Bufo (Anaxyrus) quercicus)

Image

Bufonidae Family

Southern Toad
(Bufo (Anaxyrus) terrestris)

Image

Cryptobranchidae Family

Eastern Hellbender
(Crypto­branchus a.alleganiensis)

 

Image

Hylidae Family

Gray Treefrog
Cope's

(Hyla chrysoscelis)
Common
(Hyla versicolor)

Image

Hylidae Family

Cricket Frog
Northern
(Acris crepitans)
Southern
(Acris gryllus)

 

Image

Hylidae Family

Little Grass Frog
(Pseudacris ocularis)

Image

Hylidae Family

Mountain Chorus Frog
(Pseudacris brachyphona)

Image

Hylidae Family

Brimley's Chorus Frog
(Pseudacris brimleyi)

Image

Hylidae Family

Ornate Chorus Frog
(Pseudacris ornata)

Image

Hylidae Family

Southern Chorus Frog
(Pseudacris nigrita)

Image

Hylidae Family

Spring Peeper
(Pseudacris crucifer)

Image

Hylidae Family

Upland Chorus Frog
(Pseudacris feriarum)

Image

Hylidae Family

Barking Treefrog
Hyla gratiosa

Image

Hylidae Family

Green Treefrog
(Hyla cinerea)

Image

Hylidae Family

Pine Barrens Treefrog
(Hyla andersonii)

Image

Hylidae Family

Pine Woods Treefrog
(Hyla femoralis)

Image

Hylidae Family

Squirrel Treefrog
Hyla squirella

Image

Microhylidae Family

Eastern Narrowmouth Toad
(Gastrophryne carolinensis)

 

Image

Pelobatidae Family

Eastern Spadefoot
(Scaphiopus holbrookii)

Image

Plethodontidae Family

Green Salamander
(Aneides aeneus)

 

Image

Plethodontidae Family

Seepage Salamander
(Desmognathus aeneus)

Image

Ranidae Family

American Bullfrog
(Rana catesbeiana)

Image

Ranidae Family

Carolina Gopher Frog
(Rana capito)

Image

Ranidae Family

Carpenter Frog
(Rana virgatipes)

Image

Ranidae Family

Green Frog
(Rana clamitans)

Image

Ranidae Family

Pickerel Frog
(Rana palustris)

Image

Ranidae Family

Wood Frog
(Rana sylvatica)

Image

Ranidae Family

Southern Leopard Frog
(Rana sphenocephala)

 

Crustaceans

An invertebrate animal with a hard exoskeleton and at least five pairs of jointed legs on the thorax. Crabs, lobsters, shrimp and crayfish are all crustaceans. Additional information.

 

ImageSpeciesClassificationAdditional Information

Grandfather Mountain Crayfish
Cambarus (C.) eeseeohensis
Nongame Fish - Crustacean

Additional Information

Broad River Stream Crayfish
Cambarus (C.) lenati
Nongame Fish - Crustacean

Additional Information

Longnose Crayfish
Cambarus (H.) longirostris
Nongame Fish - Crustacean

Additional Information

Mitten Crayfish
Cambarus (J.) asperimanus
Nongame Fish - Crustacean

Additional Information

Red Burrowing Crayfish
Cambarus (J.) carolinus
Nongame Fish - Crustacean

Additional Information

Upland Burrowing Crayfish
Cambarus (J.) dubius
Nongame Fish - Crustacean

Additional Information

Tuckasegee Stream Crayfish
Cambarus (J.) tuckasegee
Nongame Fish - Crustacean

Additional Information

Valley River Crayfish
Cambarus (P.) brimleyorum
Nongame Fish - Crustacean

Additional Information

Chauga Crayfish
Cambarus (P.) chaugaensis
Special Concern

Additional Information

Little Tennessee River Crayfish
Cambarus (P.) georgiae
Special Concern

Additional Information

Hiwassee Crayfish
Cambarus (P.) hiwasseensis
Nongame Fish - Crustacean

Additional Information

Carolina Foothills Crayfish
Cambarus (P.) johni
Nongame Fish - Crustacean

Additional Information

Hiwassee Headwaters Crayfish
Cambarus (P.) parrishi
Special Concern

Additional Information

French Broad Crayfish
Cambarus (P.) reburrus
Nongame Fish - Crustacean

Additional Information

No common name
Cambarus (P.) sp. C
Nongame Fish - Crustacean

Additional Information

Broad River Spiny Crayfish
Cambarus (P.) spicatus
Special Concern

Additional Information

Virile Crayfish
Orconectes (G.) virilis
Non-native

Additional Information

Rusty Crayfish
Orconectes (P.) rusticus
Non-native

Additional Information

Spiny Stream Crayfish
Orconectes (P.) cristavarius
Nongame Fish - Crustacean

Additional Information

Greensboro Burrowing Crayfish
Cambarus (D.) catagius
Special Concern

Additional Information

No common name
Cambarus (D.) latimanus
Nongame Fish - Crustacean

Additional Information

Sickle Crayfish
Cambarus (D.) reduncus
Nongame Fish - Crustacean    

Additional Information

Atlantic Slope Crayfish
Cambarus (H.) longulus
Nongame Fish - Crustacean

Additional Information

Appalachian Brook Crayfish
Cambarus (C.) bartonii
Nongame Fish - Crustacean

Additional Information

Carolina Ladle Crayfish
Cambarus (C.) davidi
Nongame Fish - Crustacean

Additional Information

Chattahoochee Crayfish
Cambarus (C.) sp. A
Nongame Fish - Crustacean

Additional Information

New River Crayfish
Cambarus (H.) chasmodactylus
Nongame Fish - Crustacean

Additional Information

Knotty Burrowing Crayfish
Cambarus (J.) nodosus
Nongame Fish - Crustacean

Additional Information

Devil Crayfish
Cambarus (L.) diogenes
Nongame Fish - Crustacean

Additional Information

Rocky River Crayfish
Cambarus (P.) hobbsorum
Nongame Fish - Crustacean

Additional Information

Big River Crayfish
Cambarus (P.) robustus
Nongame Fish - Crustacean

Additional Information

Spinytail Crayfish
Cambarus (T.) acanthura
Nongame Fish - Crustacean

Additional Information

Digger Crayfish
Fallicambarus (C.) fodiens
Nongame Fish - Crustacean

Additional Information

Chowanoke Crayfish
Orconectes (C.) virginiensis
Special Concern

Additional Information

North Carolina Spiny Crayfish
Orconectes (P.) carolinensis
Special Concern

Additional Information

Tennessee River Spiny Crayfish
Orconectes (P.) spinosus
Nongame Fish - Crustacean

Additional Information

White River Crayfish
Procambarus (O.) acutus
Nongame Fish - Crustacean

Additional Information

Edisto Crayfish
Procambarus (O.) ancylus
Nongame Fish - Crustacean

Additional Information

Santee Crayfish
Procambarus (O.) blandingii
Nongame Fish - Crustacean

Additional Information

Waccamaw Crayfish
Procambarus (O.) braswelli
Special Concern

Additional Information

Pamlico Crayfish
Procambarus (O.) medialis
Nongame Fish - Crustacean

Additional Information

Sandhills Crayfish
Procambarus (O.) pearsei
Nongame Fish - Crustacean

Additional Information

Croatan Crayfish
Procambarus (O.) plumimanus
Nongame Fish - Crustacean

Additional Information

Red Swamp Crayfish
Procambarus (S.) clarkii
Non-native

Additional Information

Carolina Needlenose Crayfish
Cambarus (P.) aldermanorum
Nongame Fish - Crustacean

Additional Information

Credit: TWRA-Carl Williams 

Reticulate Crayfish
Orconectes (C.) erichsonianus
Nongame Fish - Crustacean

Additional Information

Credit: TWRA-Carl Williams 

Surgeon Crayfish
Orconectes (P.) forceps
Nongame Fish - Crustacean

Additional Information

Mollusks

Mollusks are a group that includes snails, slugs, and mussels. They are invertebrate animals with soft, unsegmented bodies. Most have hard, external shells.

Management Recommendations 


Mussels

North Carolina is home to more than 60 species of freshwater mussels. Unfortunately, 50% of these species are designated Endangered, Threatened, or Special Concern within the state. The Nongame and Endangered Wildlife Program strives to prevent species from becoming endangered through maintaining viable, self-sustaining populations of native wildlife, with an emphasis on species in decline. Public education is a major component of this effort. The following list provide detailed information about North Carolina's freshwater mussel species.

Note: When you see an example like (Conrad, 1834), this indicates the namer of the species and date of the description with that species name.

SpeciesSorted By Species In Ascending OrderClassificationAdditional Information
Alewife Floater
Anodonta implicata
State Threatened

Additional Information

Appalachian Elktoe
Alasmidonta raveneliana
Federal and State Endangered

Additional Information

Atlantic Pigtoe
Fusconaia masoni
State Endangered

Additional Information

Barrel Floater
Anodonta couperiana
State Endangered

Additional Information

Brook Floater
Alasmidonta varicosa
State Endangered

Additional Information

Cape Fear Spike
Elliptio marsupiobesa
State Special Concern

Additional Information

Carolina Creekshell
Villosa vaughaniana
State Endangered

Additional Information

Carolina Fatmucket
Lampsilis radiata conspicua
State Threatened

Additional Information

Carolina Heelsplitter
Lasmigona decorata
Federal and State Endangered

Additional Information

Creeper
Strophitus undulatus
State Threatened

Additional Information

Cumberland Bean Pearlymussel
Villosa trabalis
State Extirpated

Additional Information

Cumberland Moccasinshell
Medionidus conradicus
State Extirpated

Additional Information

Dwarf Wedgemussel
Alasmidonta heterodon
Federal and State Endangered

Additional Information

Eastern Creekshell
Villosa delumbis
State Endangered

Additional Information

Eastern Lampmussel
Lampsilis radiata radiata
State Threatened

Additional Information

Eastern Pondmussel
Ligumia nasuta
State Threatened

Additional Information

Green Floater
Lasmigona subviridis
State Endangered

Additional Information

Kidneyshell
Ptychobranchus fasciolaris
State Extirpated

Additional Information

Littlewing Pearlymussel
Pegias fabula
Federal and State Endangered

Additional Information

Mountain Creekshell
Villosa vanuxemensis
State Threatened

Additional Information

Notched Rainbow
Villosa constricta
State Special Concern

Additional Information

Oyster Mussel
Epioblasma capsaeformis
State Extirpated

Additional Information

Pheasantshell
Actinonaias pectorosa
State Extirpated

Additional Information

Pimpleback
Quadrula pustulosa
State Extirpated

Additional Information

Pistolgrip
Tritogonia verrucosa
State Extirpated

Additional Information

Pod Lance
Elliptio folliculata
State Special Concern

Additional Information

Purple Lilliput
Toxolasma lividus
State Extirpated

Additional Information

Purple Wartyback
Cyclonaias tuberculata
State Endangered

Additional Information

Rainbow
Villosa iris
State Special Concern

Additional Information

Roanoke Slabshell
Elliptio roanokensis
State Threatened

Additional Information

Savannah Lilliput
Toxolasma pullus
State Endangered

Additional Information

Slippershell Mussel
Alasmidonta viridis
State Endangered

Additional Information

Spike
Elliptio dilatata
State Special Concern

Additional Information

Tar River Spinymussel
Elliptio steinstansana
Federal and State Endangered

Additional Information

Tennessee Heelsplitter
Lasmigona holstonia
State Endangered

Additional Information

Tennessee Pigtoe
Fusconaia barnesiana
State Endangered

Additional Information

Tidewater Mucket
Leptodea ochracea
State Threatened

Additional Information

Triangle Floater
Alasmidonta undulata
State Threatened

Additional Information

Wabash Pigtoe
Fusconaia flava
State Extirpated

Additional Information

Waccamaw Fatmucket
Lampsilis fullerkati
State Threatened

Additional Information

Waccamaw Spike
Elliptio waccamawensis
State Threatened

Additional Information

Wavyrayed Lampmussel
Lampsilis fasciola
State Special Concern

Additional Information

Yellow Lampmussel
Lampsilis cariosa
State Endangered

Additional Information

Yellow Lance
Elliptio lanceolata
State Endangered

Additional Information

Species Classifications

Game

“Game” status includes species that can be hunted in North Carolina.

Nongame

“Nongame” status includes species that are not classified as game or furbearer. These species are regulated by the NCWRC and may be hunted or trapped with the appropriate licenses/permits.

Big Game

“Big Game” status includes species that can be hunted and must be registered with the NCWRC upon harvest.

Furbearer

“Furbearer” status includes species that can be trapped in North Carolina.