North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission

Mollusks

Mollusks are a group that includes snails, slugs, and mussels. They are invertebrate animals with soft, unsegmented bodies. Most have hard, external shells.

Management Recommendations 

Mussels

North Carolina is home to more than 60 species of freshwater mussels. Unfortunately, 50% of these species are designated Endangered, Threatened, or Special Concern within the state. The Nongame and Endangered Wildlife Program strives to prevent species from becoming endangered through maintaining viable, self-sustaining populations of native wildlife, with an emphasis on species in decline. Public education is a major component of this effort. The following list provide detailed information about North Carolina's freshwater mussel species.

Note: When you see an example like (Conrad, 1834), this indicates the namer of the species and date of the description with that species name.

SpeciesSorted By Species In Ascending OrderClassificationAdditional Information
Alewife Floater
Anodonta implicata
State Threatened

Additional Information

Appalachian Elktoe
Alasmidonta raveneliana
Federal and State Endangered

Additional Information

Atlantic Pigtoe
Fusconaia masoni
State Endangered

Additional Information

Barrel Floater
Anodonta couperiana
State Endangered

Additional Information

Brook Floater
Alasmidonta varicosa
State Endangered

Additional Information

Cape Fear Spike
Elliptio marsupiobesa
State Special Concern

Additional Information

Carolina Creekshell
Villosa vaughaniana
State Endangered

Additional Information

Carolina Fatmucket
Lampsilis radiata conspicua
State Threatened

Additional Information

Carolina Heelsplitter
Lasmigona decorata
Federal and State Endangered

Additional Information

Creeper
Strophitus undulatus
State Threatened

Additional Information

Cumberland Bean Pearlymussel
Villosa trabalis
State Extirpated

Additional Information

Cumberland Moccasinshell
Medionidus conradicus
State Extirpated

Additional Information

Dwarf Wedgemussel
Alasmidonta heterodon
Federal and State Endangered

Additional Information

Eastern Creekshell
Villosa delumbis
State Endangered

Additional Information

Eastern Lampmussel
Lampsilis radiata radiata
State Threatened

Additional Information

Eastern Pondmussel
Ligumia nasuta
State Threatened

Additional Information

Green Floater
Lasmigona subviridis
State Endangered

Additional Information

Kidneyshell
Ptychobranchus fasciolaris
State Extirpated

Additional Information

Littlewing Pearlymussel
Pegias fabula
Federal and State Endangered

Additional Information

Mountain Creekshell
Villosa vanuxemensis
State Threatened

Additional Information

Notched Rainbow
Villosa constricta
State Special Concern

Additional Information

Oyster Mussel
Epioblasma capsaeformis
State Extirpated

Additional Information

Pheasantshell
Actinonaias pectorosa
State Extirpated

Additional Information

Pimpleback
Quadrula pustulosa
State Extirpated

Additional Information

Pistolgrip
Tritogonia verrucosa
State Extirpated

Additional Information

Pod Lance
Elliptio folliculata
State Special Concern

Additional Information

Purple Lilliput
Toxolasma lividus
State Extirpated

Additional Information

Purple Wartyback
Cyclonaias tuberculata
State Endangered

Additional Information

Rainbow
Villosa iris
State Special Concern

Additional Information

Roanoke Slabshell
Elliptio roanokensis
State Threatened

Additional Information

Savannah Lilliput
Toxolasma pullus
State Endangered

Additional Information

Slippershell Mussel
Alasmidonta viridis
State Endangered

Additional Information

Spike
Elliptio dilatata
State Special Concern

Additional Information

Tar River Spinymussel
Elliptio steinstansana
Federal and State Endangered

Additional Information

Tennessee Heelsplitter
Lasmigona holstonia
State Endangered

Additional Information

Tennessee Pigtoe
Fusconaia barnesiana
State Endangered

Additional Information

Tidewater Mucket
Leptodea ochracea
State Threatened

Additional Information

Triangle Floater
Alasmidonta undulata
State Threatened

Additional Information

Wabash Pigtoe
Fusconaia flava
State Extirpated

Additional Information

Waccamaw Fatmucket
Lampsilis fullerkati
State Threatened

Additional Information

Waccamaw Spike
Elliptio waccamawensis
State Threatened

Additional Information

Wavyrayed Lampmussel
Lampsilis fasciola
State Special Concern

Additional Information

Yellow Lampmussel
Lampsilis cariosa
State Endangered

Additional Information

Yellow Lance
Elliptio lanceolata
State Endangered

Additional Information